Learning Focus/Learning Objectives

Counting Strategies.

(See Mathematics Developmental Continuum Addition and Subtraction Progression Points)


Adding, Addition, Counting on, counting up, 100’s chart, open number line, more, less, same, total, sum,


Warm Up Game

Whole Class Introduction

Student Activity



5 mins

10 mins

25 - 35



Roll to 100 (100’s Chart)

Check counting on and knowledge of numbers.

Record student understandings.

I went fishing on the weekend with my Mum. I caught 3 and she caught 5. How many did we catch?

Model on 100’s chart, Open # line and # sentence.

You went fishing. How many did each person catch and how many fish did you end up with? 

Pictures/Numbers/Words (P/N/W) or Thinkboard

Discuss strategies.

How did they use the 100’s chart, Open # line and # sentence.


10 rolls. Highest total wins. Write # sentence.


Mum gave me $8 and Dad gave me $5.

How much money did I have?

My family and friends each gave me some money for my birthday. How much money did I end up with?  P/N/W

Discuss strategies.

How did they use the 100’s chart, Open # line and # sentence.


Roll to 50 and back again. First back to zero wins.

I played one game last night for 12 minutes, then another for 8 minutes. How long did I play for?

I went to my friends and we played heaps of games. How long did we play for.  P/N/W

(List the games and how long we played each.)

Discuss strategies.

How did they use the 100’s chart, Open # line and # sentence.


Skip Counting.

Around the World. Discuss counting by 4’s. (4,8,2,6,0)

Play  counting by 4’s until you get around the whole class twice.

What colours are in smarties? I counted my box of smarties and had 12 smarties. How many of each colour could there be?

Model a table with students suggestions

You had a big bag of smarties and there was 100. How many of each colour were there?

Draw in a table.

Write the number sentence.


What if there were 1000?


Roll to 100.

I went to the zoo on the weekend. I saw 4 Giraffes, 3 Elephants and 2 Gorillas. How many animals did I see?

I went to the zoo and counted all the animals. How many of each type were there. How many animals altogether?  P/N/W

Share solutions.

Discuss words associated with counting on. Create word bank for addition.




Progression Point


1.0 Standard

… They use materials to model addition and subtraction of subtraction by the aggregation (grouping together) and disaggregation (moving apart) of objects. They add and subtract by counting forward and backward using the numbers from 0 to 20.


  • counting forwards and backwards by 1 from starting points between 1 and 100
  • calculation of the next number when asked to add 1 or 2 to any natural number from 0 to 10
  • drawing of diagrams to show subtraction activities


  • addition and subtraction of two-digit multiples of ten by counting on and counting back
  • counting on from the larger of two collections to find their total
  • use of the number properties (commutative and associative) of addition in mental computation, and recognition of complements to ten; for example, 3 + 4 + 7 + 6 = 3 + 7 + 4 + 6 = 10 + 10 = 20

2.0 Standard

… They add and subtract one- and two-digit numbers by counting on and counting back. They mentally compute simple addition and subtraction calculations involving one- or two-digit natural numbers, using number facts such as complement to 10, doubles and near doubles. They use commutative and associative properties of addition and multiplication in mental computation (for example, 3 + 4 = 4 + 3 and 3 + 4 + 5 can be done as 7 + 5 or 3 + 9).


  • addition and subtraction of amounts of money including calculation of change from $10
  • use of strategies such as ‘near doubles’, ‘adding 9’ and ‘build to next 10’ to solve addition and subtraction problems
  • use of written methods for whole number problems of addition and subtraction involving numbers up to 99

3.0 Standard

… They estimate the results of computations and recognise whether these are likely to be over-estimates or under-estimates. They compute with numbers up to 30 using all four operations. They devise and use written methods for:

  • whole number problems of addition and subtraction involving numbers up to 999

They devise and use algorithms for the addition and subtraction of numbers to two decimal places, including situations involving money. They add and subtract simple common fractions with the assistance of physical models.


4.0 Standard

Students explain and use mental and written algorithms for the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of natural numbers (positive whole numbers).



o        variation of order and grouping of addition (commutative and associative property) to facilitate computations; for example, 3 + 5 + 7 + 5 = 3 + 7 + 5 + 5 = 10 +10 = 20


They use number properties in combination to facilitate computations (for example, 7 + 10 + 13 = 10 + 7 + 13 = 10 + 20).


Students recognise that addition and subtraction…are inverse operations.