Use of
onetoone correspondence and numbers 1 to 10 when counting.
Can count 10 counters.

They use
materials to model addition and subtraction by the aggregation (grouping
together) and disaggregation (moving apart) of objects.
They add
and subtract by counting forward and backward using the numbers from 0 to 20
on a number line or 100’s chart..
Students
count the size of small sets using the numbers 0 to 20.

Drawing of
diagrams to show subtraction activities.
Use of
written number sentences to summarise addition.
Calculation
of the next number when asked to add 1 or 2 to any natural number from 0 to
10.

Counting
by 2s, 5s and 10s from 0 to a given target: for
example, 5+5+5+5= 20
Addition and subtraction of twodigit multiples
of ten by counting on and counting back. (10+10).
Counting on from the larger of two collections to
find their total.
Recognition of complements to ten; for example, 3
+ 4 + 7 + 6 = 3 + 7 + 4 + 6 = 10 + 10 = 20

Addition
and subtraction of numbers less than 10 using recall of number facts.
Development
and use of a 'fact family' linking 25 + 5 = 30 to 5 + 25 = 30, 30 − 5 = 25 and 30 − 25 = 5

They mentally compute simple
addition and subtraction calculations involving one or twodigit natural
numbers, using number facts such as complements to 10 (8+2), doubles (8+8) and
near doubles(8+9).
They add and subtract oneand
twodigit numbers by counting on and counting back.
Students describe and calculate
simple multiplication as repeated addition, such as 4 × 5 = 5 + 5 +5 + 5; and division as sharing, such
as 20 shared between 5.

Use of
strategies such as ‘near doubles’, ‘adding 9’ and ‘build up to next 10’ to
solve addition and subtraction problems.
Use of
money as a model for grouping and unpacking lots of 10s.($20 = $10 + $10)
Use
of ‘=’ to indicate equivalence or the result of a computation
Use of
written number sentences such as 20 ÷ 4 = 5 to summarise sharing
(partition) and ‘how many?’ (quotition) processes

Use of
written methods for whole number problems of addition and subtraction
involving numbers up to 99
Addition
and subtraction of amounts of money including calculation of change from $10.
(using cents)
Calculations using notation such as ‘3 + 5 − 2 =’

Addition
and subtraction of numbers to two decimal places.
Use of
fact families (5 × 4 = 20, 20 ÷ 4 =
5) to solve division problems

They
devise and use algorithms for the addition and subtraction of numbers to two
decimal places, including situations involving money.
They use
number properties in combination to facilitate computations (for example, 7 +
10 + 3 = 10 + 7 + 3 = 10 + 10).
Students
apply number skills to everyday contexts such as shopping, with appropriate
rounding to the nearest five cents.
They add
and subtract simple common fractions with the assistance of physical models.

Appropriate
selection and use of mental and written algorithms to add, subtract, multiply
and divide (by single digits) natural numbers.
Use of
brackets to determine order of operations



Students explain and use mental and written
algorithms for the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of
natural numbers (positive whole numbers).
They add,
subtract, and multiply fractions and decimals (to two decimal places) and
apply these operations in practical contexts, including the use of money.
